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Neuron cell bodies basically have the same cytoplasmic components as other types of secretory cells.
The cell's large nucleus and nucleolus are the most prominent cell body structures.
Groups of free ribosomes and numerous stacks of ribosome studded rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) surround the nucleus. Because they stain well with basic dyes, the free ribosomes and RER are often referred to as chromatophilic substance or Nissl bodies.
The RER and free ribosomes synthesize the cell's proteins.
Proteins made by the free ribosomes enter the cytoplasm and are used for metabolic processes in the neuron.
Proteins made by the RER are further processed and distributed so they can be used for neurotransmission.
First, the RER proteins are placed in transport vesicles, which travel through the cytoplasm and fuse with a nearby Golgi apparatus (Golgi complex or Golgi body).
Inside the Golgi appartus, the proteins are chemically addressed, sorted, and packaged. The altered proteins are eventually placed in secretory vesicles, which bud from the Golgi apparatus.
Pipe-like microtubules move the secretory vesicles down the axon to synaptic knobs. Here they are either used as neurotransmitters or help make new neurotransmitters.
The energy for this and other cellular activities is supplied by ATP (adensosine triphosphate) made by mitochondria.
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