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The adult human skeleton is a framework of 206 bones and is anatomically divided into two parts, the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
The core of the skeleton is referred to as the axial skeleton. It consists of the following 80 bones.
• Skull: 22 bones
• Hyoid: 1 bone
• Vertebrae: 32 bones
• Ribs: 24 bones
• Sternum: 1 bone
Attached to the axial skeleton is the appendicular skeleton, which consists of 126 bones.
• Pectoral girdle: 4 bones
.(Scapula and clavicle)
• Arms and forearms: 6 bones
.(Humerus and radius)
• Wrists and hands: 54 bones
.(Carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges)
• Bony Pelvis: 2 bones
.(Os coxae)
• Thighs and legs: 8 bones
.(Femur, patella, tibia, and fibula)
• Ankles and feet: 52 bones
.(Tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges)
Functionally, the bones give support to the appendages and protect fragile organs of the body such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs. The bones also store and release calcium and phosphorus and the bone marrow produces new blood cells.
Additionally, the bumps, ridges, and grooves on the surface of bones serve as attachment sites for the skeletal muscles.
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