Foot Bones Anatomy
Femur Bone – Anterior and Posterior Markings
The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It forms the thigh and has several important markings that we will now learn.
Introduction to Femur Bone:
- The femur (os femoris) extends from the hip to the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the body.
- Forming the midportion of the femur is a long cylindrical shaft, which arches or curves anteriorly.
- At its proximal end, the spherical head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum (hip socket) of the os coxa (hip bone) to form the hip joint.
- Distally, the femur articulates with the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia to form the knee joint.
- The patella bone covers the anterior portion of the femur’s distal articular surface and helps protect the knee joint from injury.
Solidify your knowledge of femur anatomy with these interactive quizzes and labelling exercises.
[Anterior view / right femur]:
- Shaft (Corpus femoris) is the cylindrical, anteriorly arched body of the femur.
- Head (Caput femoris) is a prominent, smooth, ball-shaped structure on the proximal end of the bone. The head articulates with the acetabulum of the os coxa (or hip bone) to form the hip joint.
- Fovea of Femur Head (Fovea capitis fe-moris) is a small, pit-like depression on the medial surface of the head, which is also called the fovea capitis. It is as an attachment site for the ligamentum teres (round ligament; ligament of head of femur). This short, narrow, ligamentous band transmits arteries to the head of the femur and helps attach the head to the acetabulum of the os coxa (hip bone).
- Neck (Collum femoris) is a pyramid-shaped expanse that connects the head to the shaft. This region is a frequent site of fractures, especially in the elderly.
- Greater trochanter (Trochanter major) is a large, irregular-shaped process located lateral to neck and superior to shaft. It is an attachment point for the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, obturator, and gemellus muscles.
- Lesser trochanter (Trochanter minor) is a medial prominence located just inferior to neck. It is the insertion point for the iliacus and psoas major muscles.
- Intertrochanteric line (Linea intertrochan-terica) is an anterior ridge that obliquely spans the distance betweeen the greater and lesser trochanters. It is the attachment point for the articular capsule and iliofemoral ligament.
- Medial condyle (Condylus medialis) is a large, rounded, knob-like projection at the mediodistal end of the femur. It articulates with the medial condyle of the tibia.
- Medial epicondyle(Epicondylus medialis) is a small, medial protrusion superior to the articular surface of the medial condyle. It is an attachment point for the tibial (medial) collateral ligament.
- Adductor tubercle (Tuberculum adduc-torium) is a small elevation on the superior surface of the medial condyle. It serves as an attachment point for the adductor magnus muscle.
- Lateral condyle (Condylus lateralis) is a large rounded projection at the laterodistal end of the bone. It articulates with the lateral condyle of tibia.
- Lateral epicondyle (Epicondylus lateralis) is a small, lateral protrusion superior to the articular surface of the lateral condyle. It is an attachment point for the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament.
- Patellar surface (Facies patellaris) is the smooth surface that covers the anterior portion of the femur condyles. This area articulates with the posterior surface of the patella.
[posterior view / right femur]:
- Quadrate tubercle (Tuberculum quadratum) is a small elevation on the intertrochanteric crest that serves as an attachment point for quadratus femoris muscle.
- Pectineal line (Linea pectinea) is a slight ridge located inferior to the posterior surface of the lesser trochanter. It is an inferior (distal) attachment site for the pectineus muscle.
- Linea aspera (Linea aspera) is a vertical ridge that runs along the midline of the femur’s posterior surface. The medial and lateral lips of the linea aspera are attachment sites for the adductor, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris (short head) muscles.
- Gluteal tuberosity (Tuberositas glutea) is a roughened, vertical elevation that extends from the top of the linea aspera to the base of the greater trochanter. It is an insertion point for the gluteus maximus muscle.
- Lateral supracondylar line (Linea supracondylaris lateralis) is an inferior extension of the lateral lip of the linea aspera that ends at the lateral epicondyle. The ridge is an attachment site for the vastus lateralis, piriformis, and biceps femoris (short head) muscles.
- Medial supracondylar line (Linea supracondylaris medialis) is an inferior extension of the medial lip of the linea aspera that terminates just above the adductor tubercle. It serves as attachment point for inferior portions of vastus medialis and adductor magnus muscles.