Femur Bone – Anterior and Posterior Markings

Author: Scott A. Sheffield MS

Last update:

The femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It forms the thigh and has several important markings that we will now learn.

Introduction to Femur Bone:

  • The femur (os femoris) extends from the hip to the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the body.
  • Forming the image descriptionmidportion of the femur is a long cylindrical shaft, which arches or curves anteriorly.
  • At its image descriptionproximal end, the spherical head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum (hip socket) of the os coxa (hip bone) to form the hip joint.
  • image descriptionDistally, the femur articulates with the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia to form the knee joint.
  • image descriptionThe patella bone covers the anterior portion of the femur’s distal articular surface and helps protect the knee joint from injury.

 

Solidify your knowledge of femur anatomy with these interactive quizzes and labelling exercises.

Femur Bone - Anterior View - Featured
Shaft - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Head - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Femur bone - Proximal end - labeled
Femur bone - Distal end - labeled
Femur bone - Patella - labeled
Main structures of the femur bone
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Bone Markings:

[Anterior view / right femur]:

  1. image descriptionShaft (Corpus femoris) is the cylindrical, anteriorly arched body of the femur.
  2. image descriptionHead (Caput femoris) is a prominent, smooth, ball-shaped structure on the proximal end of the bone. The head articulates with the acetabulum of the os coxa (or hip bone) to form the hip joint.
  3. image descriptionFovea of Femur Head (Fovea capitis fe-moris) is a small, pit-like depression on the medial surface of the head, which is also called the fovea capitis. It is as an attachment site for the ligamentum teres (round ligament; ligament of head of femur). This short, narrow, ligamentous band transmits arteries to the head of the femur and helps attach the head to the acetabulum of the os coxa (hip bone).
  4. image descriptionNeck (Collum femoris) is a pyramid-shaped expanse that connects the head to the shaft. This region is a frequent site of fractures, especially in the elderly.
  5. image descriptionGreater trochanter (Trochanter major) is a large, irregular-shaped process located lateral to neck and superior to shaft. It is an attachment point for the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, obturator, and gemellus muscles.
  6. image descriptionLesser trochanter (Trochanter minor) is a medial prominence located just inferior to neck. It is the insertion point for the iliacus and psoas major muscles.
  7. image descriptionIntertrochanteric line (Linea intertrochan-terica) is an anterior ridge that obliquely spans the distance betweeen the greater and lesser trochanters. It is the attachment point for the articular capsule and iliofemoral ligament.
  8. image descriptionMedial condyle (Condylus medialis) is a large, rounded, knob-like projection at the mediodistal end of the femur. It articulates with the medial condyle of the tibia.
  9. image descriptionMedial epicondyle(Epicondylus medialis) is a small, medial protrusion superior to the articular surface of the medial condyle. It is an attachment point for the tibial (medial) collateral ligament.
  10. image descriptionAdductor tubercle (Tuberculum adduc-torium) is a small elevation on the superior surface of the medial condyle. It serves as an attachment point for the adductor magnus muscle.
  11. image descriptionLateral condyle (Condylus lateralis) is a large rounded projection at the laterodistal end of the bone. It articulates with the lateral condyle of tibia.
  12. image descriptionLateral epicondyle (Epicondylus lateralis) is a small, lateral protrusion superior to the articular surface of the lateral condyle. It is an attachment point for the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament.
  13. image descriptionPatellar surface (Facies patellaris) is the smooth surface that covers the anterior portion of the femur condyles. This area articulates with the posterior surface of the patella.
Femur Bone - Anterior View
Shaft - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Head - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Fovea of Femur Head - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Neck - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Greater trochanter - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Lesser trochanter - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Intertrochanteric line - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Medial condyle - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Medial epicondyle - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Adductor tubercle - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Lateral condyle - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Lateral epicondyle - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Patellar surface - Femur Bone - Anterior View
Anterior markings of the femur bone
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Bone Markings:

[posterior view / right femur]:

  1. image descriptionQuadrate tubercle (Tuberculum quadratum) is a small elevation on the intertrochanteric crest that serves as an attachment point for quadratus femoris muscle.
  2. image descriptionPectineal line (Linea pectinea) is a slight ridge located inferior to the posterior surface of the lesser trochanter. It is an inferior (distal) attachment site for the pectineus muscle.
  3. image descriptionLinea aspera (Linea aspera) is a vertical ridge that runs along the midline of the femur’s posterior surface. The medial and lateral lips of the linea aspera are attachment sites for the adductor, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris (short head) muscles.
  4. image descriptionGluteal tuberosity (Tuberositas glutea) is a roughened, vertical elevation that extends from the top of the linea aspera to the base of the greater trochanter. It is an insertion point for the gluteus maximus muscle.
  5. image descriptionLateral supracondylar line (Linea supracondylaris lateralis) is an inferior extension of the lateral lip of the linea aspera that ends at the lateral epicondyle. The ridge is an attachment site for the vastus lateralis, piriformis, and biceps femoris (short head) muscles.
  6. image descriptionMedial supracondylar line (Linea supracondylaris medialis) is an inferior extension of the medial lip of the linea aspera that terminates just above the adductor tubercle. It serves as attachment point for inferior portions of vastus medialis and adductor magnus muscles.
Femur bone
Quadrate tubercle - Femur bone
Pectineal line - Femur bone
Linea aspera - Femur bone
Gluteal tuberosity - Femur bone
Lateral supracondylar line - Femur bone
Medial supracondylar line - Femur bone
Posterior markings of the femur bone
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Test yourself:

Anterior markings of the femur bone:

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Posterior markings of the femur bone:

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Femur Bone - Anterior View - Test yourself
Femur Bone - Anterior View - Test yourself - Answers
Femur bone - Test yourself
Femur bone - Test yourself
Markings of the femur bone - Test yourself
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