Tutorials and quizzes on the anatomy and physiology of the lungs, using interactive animations and diagrams.
Air is conducted to and from the bronchioles. A lobular bronchiole conducts air in and out of a pulmonary lobule. A lobular bronchiole divides into three or more terminal bronchioles. Two or three respiratory bronchioles typically branch from each terminal.
A zoomed-in cross-section perspective demonstrating the anatomy of the bronchiole wall. Ciliated simple columnar cells, smooth muscle, folded epithelium, and alveoli are labeled.
Each lung is enveloped in a double-membrane pleural sac (visceral and parietal layer). A thin layer of watery fluid is secreted into the pleural cavity that separates the layers.
The lungs are protected by the rib cage and are supplied by arteries, veins and capillaries. Small clusters of alveoli exchange gases with nearby capillaries.
The anatomical landmarks and surfaces of the right and left lungs are demonstrated, including the mediastinal space, with labeled illustrations.
The respiratory is separated into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone. The conducting zone include structures that facilitate air to move in and out of the lungs. The respiratory zone allow inhaled oxygen to diffuse into the lung capillaries in exchange for carbon dioxide.
The lungs are anatomically and functionally divided into large subunits called lobes. Each lobe receives air from its own secondary bronchus and is separated from its neighbors by fissures.
An interactive demonstration of the bronchopulmonary segments featuring the iconic GBS illustrations. The segments of the right and left lung are highlighted and labeled.
Walls of connective tissue (or septa) partitioned the bronchopulmonary segments into many polygonal-shaped secondary pulmonary lobules. A secondary pulmonary lobule typically contains 3-5 terminal bronchioles.
This tutorial reviews the alveolar ducts which contain many cup-shaped alveoli. At each end of alveolar duct are alveolar sacs. The alveoli share a common opening to the alveolar duct.
The alveolar sac contains two types of cells :Type 1 and type 2 cells. Type 1 cells secrete pulmonary surfactant, keeping the alveolar walls from sticking together as they deflate in exhalation.
An interactive demonstration of the structure of the respiratory membrane and the mechanism of gas exchange occurring in the lungs.