Last update:

Bipolar Neurons – Structure and Functions

  • Neurons that have two cytoplasmic extensions attached to their image descriptioncell body are structurally classified as bipolar.
An image showing the bipolar neuron basic structures and its location
An image showing the bipolar neuron basic structures (cell body is labeled) and its location
1
2
  • One process serves as the image descriptionaxon and the other the image descriptiondendrite.┬áBoth processes can have many smaller branches.
An image showing the bipolar neuron basic structures and its location
An image showing the bipolar neuron basic structures (Axon is labeled) and its location
An image showing the bipolar neuron basic structures (Dendrite are labeled) and its location
1
2
3
  • Bipolar neurons are found in the retina of the eye, roof of the nasal cavity, and inner ear. They are always sensory and carry information about vision, olfaction, equilibrium, and hearing.
  • In the eye, bipolar neurons form the middle layer of the image descriptionretina.
An image showing the bipolar neuron inside the retina, the photoreceptors
An image showing the bipolar neuron inside the retina, the photoreceptors, bipolar neuron and Ganglion cells are labeled
1
2
  • Here they image descriptionconduct impulses from photoreceptors (rods and cones) to ganglion cells.
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
An image showing the action potential moving from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
  • The ganglion cells then carry the visual signals to the brain via the optic nerve.
  • The bipolar neurons in the nasal cavity are found in the image descriptionolfactory mucosa where they serve as receptors.
An image showing the bipolar neurons inside the mucosa of the nasal cavity
An image showing the bipolar neurons inside the mucosa of the nasal cavity, the cribriform plate and bipolar neurons are labeled
An image showing the bipolar neurons inside the mucosa of the nasal cavity, the olfactory mucosa, cribriform plate and bipolar neurons are labeled
1
2
3
  • When odorants are image descriptiondrawn into the nasal cavity, they bind to cilia that extend from the dendritic ends of the receptors.
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
  • In response, image descriptionimpulses are generated in the axons of the bipolar neurons. The axons carry the impulses through holes in the cribiform plate of the skull to the olfactory bulbs of the first cranial nerve.
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
An image showing the impulses generation in the axons of the bipolar neuron after odorants drawning into the nasal cavity
  • In the image descriptioninner ear, bipolar neurons make up the vestibular and cochlear branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).
An image showing the bipolar neurons inside inner ear without labeles
An image showing the bipolar neurons inside inner ear, the bipolar neurons,
1
2
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Vestibular branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)
An image showing the action potential passing through the Cochlear branch of the inner ear after stimulation (vestibular branch, cochlear branch, cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule are labeled)