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Neuron Cell Body – Structure and Functions

  • Neuron cell bodies basically have the same cytoplasmic components as other types of secretory cells.
  • The cell’s large image descriptionnucleus and nucleolus are the most prominent cell body structures.
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Nucleus) is labeled
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An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Nucleus) is labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
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  • Because they stain well with basic dyes, the free ribosomes and REP are often referred to as chromatophilic substance or Nissl bodies (see image descriptionmicrograph).

Histology image showing the neuron cell body

  • The REB and free ribosomes synthesize the cell’s proteins.
  • Proteins made by the free ribosomes enter the cytoplasm and are used for metabolic processes in the neuron
  • Proteins made by the REP are further processed and distributed¬†(look at the GIF below) so they can be used for neurotransmission.

 Distribution of REP proteins

  • First, the REP proteins are placed in transport vesicles, which travel through the cytoplasm and fuse with a nearby image descriptionGolgi apparatus (Golgi complex or Golgi body).
  • Inside the Golgi apparatus, the proteins are chemically addressed, sorted, and packaged. The altered proteins are eventually placed in secretory vesicles, which bud from the Golgi apparatus.
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
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  • Pipe-like image descriptionmicrotubules move the secretory vesicles down the axon to synaptic knobs. Here they are either used as neurotransmitters or help make new neurotransmitters.
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
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  • The energy for this and other cellular activities is supplied by ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesized by image descriptionmitochondria.
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Mitochondrion, Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
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  • Also inside the cell body are many image descriptionneurofilaments, which are narrow strand of protein (intermediate filaments). They form a supportive cytoskeleton that helps maintain the shape of the cell body.
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Mitochondrion, Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
An image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Neurofilament, Mitochondrion, Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) are labeled
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Overview:

Test yourself image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Neurofilament, Mitochondrion, Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) all numbered without answers
Test yourself image showing the neuron cell body and it's structures (Neurofilament, Mitochondrion, Microtubule, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Free ribosomes and Nucleus) all numbered with answers below
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