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Sodium (Na+) / Potassium (K+) Pump (ATPase)

  • Sodium-potassium pump (or Na+/K+ -ATPase) are transmembrane proteins that actively transports Na+ ions to the extracellar fluid (ECF) and K+ ions to the intracellular fluid (ICF). The process basically consists of the following steps.
  1. image description3 Na+ ions from the ICF bind to the pump (with ATP or adenosine triphosphate attached).
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
An image of cell membrane showing 3 Na ions binding to the pump (ATPase) process
  1. The image descriptionpump is phosphorylated after the third phosphate on the ATP is hydrolyzed by ATPase.
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing Pump phosphorylation process
  1. The image descriptionNa+ are released to the ECF as the pump changes conformation (shape).
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
An image of cell membrane showing Na ions release from the pump to the ECF
  1. image descriptionTwo K+ ions from the ECF bind to the pump.
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
An image of cell membrane showing K ions moving from ECF to bind to the pump (ATPase)
  1. The attached K+ ions trigger image descriptiondephosphorylation of the pump.
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
An image of cell membrane showing pump Dephosphorylation process
  1. The image descriptionK+ are released to the ICF as the pump changes conformation due to dephosphorylation.
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
An image of cell membrane showing K ions release from the pump to the ICF
  • As a result, both chemical (diffusion) and electrical gradients are created.