Tutorials and quizzes on the mechanisms used to transport respiratory gases, using interactive animations and diagrams.
Hemoglobin structure in a detailed, interactive and illustrated tutorial (globin, alpha and beta subunits, porphyrin, heme groups,…etc) with colorful and simple animations about its states (relaxed & tensed).
An interactive demonstration of the concentration of oxygen in the blood plasma affecting oxygen-hemoglobin saturation. The reaction also causes the color of the RBCs in the vial to change from purple to red as shown in the animation. As O2 enters the vial of blood, the plasma pO2 increases and more O2 binds with hemoglobin.
Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs when carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin’s four heme groups. This interactive tutorial demonstrations carbon monoxide association with hemoglobin is directly related to the plasma partial pressure of CO. O2 cannot be distributed as needed to the body’s tissues if an individual breathes in a small amount.
Myoglobin binds and stores oxygen inside of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. The heme group consists of ferrous iron and a surrounding porphyrin ring. Two histidine molecules are associated with the heme.
The changes in blood plasma pH affect the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation. A low pH (acidic) in the blood plasma will shift the saturation curve to the right.
If an isolated muscle fiber has been placed in a vial of deoxygenated blood. Inside the muscle fiber, each molecule of myoglobin can bind one O2. The O2-Mb bond is reversible, and the direction of the reaction is dependent on the concentration of O2 (partial pressure or pO2) in the surrounding fluids.
A demonstration of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the plasma and the effect on oxygen-hemoglobin saturation.