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An online study guide to learn about the structure and function of the respiratory system using interactive animations and diagrams. Looking for Quizzes? Click here
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Respiratory System Anatomy – Major Zones & Divisions
The respiratory is separated into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone.
The conducting zone include structures that facilitate air to move in and out of the lungs.
The respiratory zone allow inhaled oxygen to diffuse into the lung capillaries in exchange for carbon dioxide.
Nose and Nasal Cavity | Structure & Functions
An introduction to the nose and the nasal cavity. The nose is the first portion of the respiratory tract and serves as a vent for air exchange. Inhaled air is warmed, moistened, and cleaned so it can travel safely into other parts of the respiratory tract.
Tracheal Wall Composition and Structure – Anatomy of the Tracheal Tube or Windpipe
There are four tissue layers of the tracheal wall. The trachea includes respiratory mucosa, submucosa, cartilaginous rings, trachealis muscle, and adventitia.
Lung Volumes and Capacities
The amount of air in the lungs can be subdivided into four (4) volumes and four (4) capacities. The four volumes include tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. The four capacities include inspiratory capacity, functional reserve capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity.
Lungs Anatomy | Shapes and Surfaces of the Lungs
The anatomical landmarks and surfaces of the right and left lungs are demonstrated, including the mediastinal space, with labeled illustrations.
Glottis – Structure & Function
The vocal folds and the space between the folds are referred to as the glottis. Laryngeal muscles adjust the size of the glottic opening. A broader opening allow for air to enter and leave the trachea. The muscles reduce the size of the opening to create voice sounds.
Location and Functions of the Larynx
The larynx is a guarded air passageway between the pharynx and the trachea. It is formed by 9 supportive cartilages, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and a mucous membrane lining. It is a short 1.5 inch tube that is located in the throat, inferior to the hyoid bone and tongue and anterior to the esophagus.
Introduction to Spirometers & Lung Diseases
Spirometry is one of the primary Pulmonary Funtion Tests (PFT) used to check the health of the lungs and respiratory passageways. When a spirometry test is performed, the subject breathes through an mechanical or electronic airflow sensor called a spirometer. A recording of a subject’s airflow is referred to as a spirogram.
Olfactory Mucosa (Epithelium & lamina Propria)
The olfactory mucosa detects odor-producing chemicals. The epithelium layer includes specialized nerve cells and non-motile cilia to provide a binding site for odorants. Mucus covers the receptor cilia where odorants dissolve and bind to cilia receptors. The binding produces an electrochemical impulse.
Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx
The intrinsic muscles move the arytenoid cartilages and adjust the tension applied to the vocal folds and ligaments. The intrinsic muscles originate and insert on the larynx.