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Respiratory System Anatomy – Major Zones & Divisions
The respiratory is separated into the conducting zone and the respiratory zone.
The conducting zone include structures that facilitate air to move in and out of the lungs.
The respiratory zone allow inhaled oxygen to diffuse into the lung capillaries in exchange for carbon dioxide.
Lung Volumes and Capacities
The amount of air in the lungs can be subdivided into four (4) volumes and four (4) capacities. The four volumes include tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. The four capacities include inspiratory capacity, functional reserve capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity.
Glottis – Structure & Function
The vocal folds and the space between the folds are referred to as the glottis. Laryngeal muscles adjust the size of the glottic opening. A broader opening allow for air to enter and leave the trachea. The muscles reduce the size of the opening to create voice sounds.
Nose and Nasal Cavity | Structure & Functions
An introduction to the nose and the nasal cavity. The nose is the first portion of the respiratory tract and serves as a vent for air exchange. Inhaled air is warmed, moistened, and cleaned so it can travel safely into other parts of the respiratory tract.
Respiratory Membrane and Gas Exchange
An interactive demonstration of the structure of the respiratory membrane and the mechanism of gas exchange occurring in the lungs.
Tracheal Wall Composition and Structure – Anatomy of the Tracheal Tube or Windpipe
There are four tissue layers of the tracheal wall. The trachea includes respiratory mucosa, submucosa, cartilaginous rings, trachealis muscle, and adventitia.
Location and Functions of the Larynx
The larynx is a guarded air passageway between the pharynx and the trachea. It is formed by 9 supportive cartilages, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and a mucous membrane lining. It is a short 1.5 inch tube that is located in the throat, inferior to the hyoid bone and tongue and anterior to the esophagus.
Hemoglobin Molecule – Structure & Function
Hemoglobin structure in a detailed, interactive and illustrated tutorial (globin, alpha and beta subunits, porphyrin, heme groups,…etc) with colorful and simple animations about its states (relaxed & tensed).
Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx
The intrinsic muscles move the arytenoid cartilages and adjust the tension applied to the vocal folds and ligaments. The intrinsic muscles originate and insert on the larynx.
Trachea (or Windpipe) Location, Anatomy, and Physiology
The general anatomy of the trachea shown on anterior view and highlighting the cartilage rings on cross section view. The location relationship with the esophagus is demonstrated.