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Humerus Bone Anatomy

Introduction to Humerus bone anatomy:

  • The image descriptionhumerus is a long bone that supports the upper arm (upper arm bone). It extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint.
Humerus Anterior View
Humerus Anterior View
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Anatomy of the Humerus bone:

  1. At its image descriptionproximal end, the humerus is attached to the axial skeletal by the shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle, which consists of the scapula and clavicle bones. The rounded humeral head fits into the glenoid fossa (cavity) of the scapula. This shallow depression on the lateral side of the scapula allows the shoulder joint to be very mobile but also reduces its stability.
  2. A long, cylindrical shaft (body) makes up the image descriptionmiddle part of the humerus. Most of the shaft’s surface is smooth except for the deltoid tuberosity, which is located near the midpoint of the lateral margin. The shaft is an attachment site for several muscles that move the upper arm and lower arm.
  3. image descriptionDistally, the humerus joins medially with the ulna and laterally with the radius at the elbow joint.
  4. The humeroulnar joint is formed by the pulley-shaped trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna. The humeroradial joint is formed by the rounded capitulum of the humerus and the concave superior surface of the radial head.

    Quickly and efficiently learn all the bones of the body using these interactive quizzes and labelling exercises.

Middle part of humerus
Distal end of the humerus
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  • Muscles from the shoulder girdle help stabilize the joint and control the front-to-back, side-to-side, and rotational movements of the humerus.

Muscles of the shoulder girdle

Anterior Markings of the Humerus Bone:

  1. image descriptionHead (Caput humeri) is a large, rounded, prominence that extends medially from the bone’s proximal end. It articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint or shoulder joint.
  2. image descriptionGreater tubercle (Tuberculum majus) is a large, roughened area located lateral to the head. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles attach to this elevation.
  3. image descriptionLesser tubercle (Tuberculum minus) is a roughened area located medial to the greater tubercle. It serves as the insertion site for the subscapularis muscle.
  4. image descriptionIntertubercular Groove or Sulcus (Sul-cus intertubercularis) is a narrow, longitudinal depression between the greater and lesser tubercles. This indentation, which is also called the bicipital groove, is a passageway for the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii. The pectoralis major, teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles also attach here.
  5. image descriptionAnatomical Neck (Collum anatomicum) is a grooved constriction between the head and tubercles that serves as an attachment point for the articular (joint) capsule.
  6. image descriptionSurgical Neck (Collum chirurgicum hu-meri) is an region inferior to the tubercles where the bone narrows and fractures often occur.
  7.  image descriptionShaft or Body (corpus humeri) is the elongagted, cylinder shaped middle portion of the bone. Its relatively smooth surface is the insertion point for muscles that move the upper arm and the origin point for muscles that move the lower arm.
  8. image descriptionDeltoid Tuberosity (Tuberositas deltoidea) is a raised, roughened area located on the lateral side of the shaft at its midpoint. It is an attachment point for the deltoid muscle.
Head of humerus
Head of humerus
Greater tubercle
Anatomical Neck
Surgical Neck
Deltoid Tuberosity
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  1. image descriptionLateral Epicondyle (Epicondylus lateralis) is a rounded projection at the distolateral end of the humerus. The posterior surface of the lateral epicondyle serves as an attachment point for some of the muscles that extend the wrist and fingers of the hand.
  2. image descriptionLateral Supracondylar Ridge (Crista su-pracondylaris lateralis) is the roughened margin located above the lateral epicondyle. The brachioradialis muscle attaches along this edge of the bone.
  3. image descriptionMedial Epicondyle (Epicondylus medialis) is a rounded projection at the distomedial end of the humerus. Some of the muscles that flex the forearm, wrist, and fingers attach to anterior surface of this marking.
  4. image descriptionCapitulum (Capitulum humeri) is a small, knob-like prominence on the distolateral end of the humerus. It articulates with the head of the radius bone at the elbow joint.
  5. image descriptionTrochlea (Trochlea humeri) is a pulley-shaped formation located medial to the capitulum. This region articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna bone at the elbow joint.
  6. image descriptionCoronoid Fossa (Fossa coronoidea) is a depression located superior to the anterior aspect of the trochlea. This region provides space for the coronoid process of the ulna when the forearm is flexed.
  7. image descriptionRadial Notch (Fossa radialis) is a small depression located superior to the capitulum. This region provides space for the head of the radius when the forearm is flexed.

 

Anterior Humerus
Lateral Epicondyle
Lateral Supracondylar Ridge
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Posterior Markings of the Humerus Bone:

  1. image descriptionHead (Caput humeri) is a large, rounded, prominence that extends medially from the bone’s proximal end. It articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint or shoulder joint.
  2. image descriptionGreater Tubercle (Tuberculum majus) is a large, roughened area located lateral to the head. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles attach to this elevation.
  3. image descriptionAnatomical Neck (Collum anatomicum) is a grooved constriction between the head and tubercles that serves as an attachment point for the articular (joint) capsule.
  4. image descriptionSurgical Neck (Collum chirurgicum hu-meri) is an region inferior to the tubercles where the bone narrows and fractures often occur.
  5. image descriptionShaft or Body (corpus humeri) is the elongagted, cylinder shaped middle portion of the bone. Its relatively smooth surface is the insertion point for muscles that move the upper arm and the origin point for muscles that move the lower arm.
  6. image descriptionDeltoid Tuberosity (Tuberositas deltoidea) is a raised, roughened area located on the lateral side of the shaft at its midpoint. It is an attachment point for the deltoid muscle.
Head of posterior humerus
Head of posterior humerus
Anatomical Neck
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  1. image descriptionRadial groove or sulcus (Sulcus nervi) is a shallow depression that runs diagonally along the lateral posterior surface of the bone, next to the deltoid tuberosity. It forms a partial passageway for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery.
  2. image descriptionLateral Epicondyle (Epicondylus lateralis) is a rounded projection at the distolateral end of the humerus. The posterior surface of the lateral epicondyle serves as an attachment point for some of the muscles that extend the wrist and fingers of the hand.
  3. image descriptionLateral Supracondylar Ridge (Crista su-pracondylaris lateralis) is the roughened margin located above the lateral epicondyle. The brachioradialis muscle attaches along this portion of the bone.
  4. image descriptionMedial Epicondyle (Epicondylus medialis) is a rounded projection at the distomedial end of the humerus. Some of the muscles that flex the forearm, wrist, and fingers attach to anterior surface of this marking.
  5. image descriptionTrochlea (Trochlea humeri) is a pulley-shaped formation located medial to the capitulum. This region articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna bone at the elbow joint.
  6. image descriptionOlecranon fossa (Fossa olecrani) is a prominent, triagular-shape depression on the distal posterior surface, superior to the trochlea. This area accepts the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is extended.
Head of posterior humerus
Radial groove or sulcus
Lateral Epicondyle
Medial Epicondyle
Trochlea
Olecranon fossa
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Test yourself:

  1. Proximal end: image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide
  2. Middle: image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide
  3. Distal end: image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide
  4. Anterior view: image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide || image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide ||image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide.
  5. Posterior view: image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide || image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide ||image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide.

 

Middle part of the humerus
Distal end of humerus bone
Distal end of humerus bone
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on anterior humerus
Test yourself on posterior view of humerus
Test yourself on posterior view of humerus
Test yourself on posterior view of humerus
Test yourself
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