Tibia and Fibula Bones – Anatomy

Author: Scott A. Sheffield MS

Last update:

Introduction to the Tibia and Fibula Bones:

The image descriptiontibia (os tibia) and image descriptionfibula (os fibula) are the bones that support the leg. The larger tibia or shinbone is located medial to the fibula and bears most of the weight.

Tibia Fibula
Tibia
Anterior view of the leg bones with the fibula highlighted in red.
The tibia and fibula bones
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  1. At the superior (proximal) end of the tibia, a pair of flattened condyles articulate with the rounded condyles at the distal end of the femur to form the image descriptionknee joint or tibiofemoral joint.
Tibia and fibula - knee joint
  1. The image descriptiontibia and fibula articulate at two sites.
  • At the knee, a superior (proximal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lateral tibial condyle and the head of the fibula.
  • At the ankle, an inferior (distal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lower fibula and a lateral concavity (notch) on the lower tibia.

Learn the bones of the body step-by-step with these interactive quizzes and labelling exercises.

tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation
tibia fibula - articulation - superior tibiofibular joint
tibia fibula - articulation - inferior tibiofibular joint
Articulation points of the tibia and fibula
  1. A socket formed by the distal ends of the tibia and fibular articulates with the superior portion of the talus (foot tarsal bone to form the image descriptionankle (talocrural) joint.
tibia fibula - ankle joint
Anterior view of the bones of the leg.
tibia fibula - ankle joint
tibia fibula - ankle joint
tibia fibula - ankle joint
tibia fibula - ankle joint
tibia fibula - ankle joint
tibia fibula - ankle joint - label
Tibia and fibula - ankle joint

Anterior Markings of the Tibia:

  1. image descriptionLateral condyle (condylus lateralis) is a lateral expansion of the tibia’s proximal end.
    • A fibrocartilage pad or lateral meniscus covers the condyle’s flattened superior surface so it can smoothly articulate with the lateral condyle of the femur.
    • The iliotibial tract attaches to the front of the condyle and the short head of the biceps femoris attaches to the back.
  2. image descriptionMedial condyle (condylus medialis) is a medial expansion of the tibia’s proximal end.
    • It’s superior surface is covered by the medial condyle of the femus.
    • The posterior of the medial condyle provides attachment for the semimembranosus muscle.
  3. image descriptionIntercondylar eminence (eminentia intercondylaris) is an elevated area between the condyles that contains the bump-like raised medial edges of each condyle.
    • Roughened depressions located anterior and posterior to the eminence are attachment sites for the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and the central tips of the medial and lateral menisci.
  4. image descriptionTibial tuberosity (tuberositas tibiae) is a raised, roughened area on the anterior surface of the bone, just inferior to the condyles.
    • This region, which is also called the tuberosity of the tibia, is an attachment point for the patellar ligament (= distal portion of the quadriceps tendon).
  5. image descriptionTibial shaft or body (corpus tibiae) is the long, cylindrical midsection of the bone.
  6. image descriptionAnterior crest border or margin (margo anterior) is a anterior ridge located just under the skin (subcutaneous).
    • It extends from the tuberosity to the medial malleolus and is the most prominent along the upper two-thirds of the bone.
    • The deep fascia of the leg attaches here.
tibia fibula - anterior view
tibia fibula - anterior view - lateral condyle
tibia fibula - anterior view - lateral condyle - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - medial condyle
tibia fibula - anterior view - medial condyle - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - intercondylar eminence
tibia fibula - anterior view - intercondylar eminence - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - tibial tuberosity
tibia fibula - anterior view - tibial tuberosity - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - tibial shaft
tibia fibula - anterior view - tibial shaft - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - anterior crest
tibia fibula - anterior view - anterior crest - bone
Tibial bone markings - anterior view
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  1. image descriptionInterosseous border or margin (margo interosseus tibiae) is the tibia’s sharp-edged lateral margin that provides attachment for the interosseous membrane of the leg.
    • This ligament-like membrane binds the tibia and fibula.
    • It also seperates the leg into posterior and anterior compartments and is an attachment site for some of the leg muscles.
  2. image descriptionMedial malleolus (malleolus medialis) is a prominent downward projection at the distal end of the tibia, on the medial side.
    • It articulated with the talus bone to form the medial portion of the ankle joint.
    • The medial malleolus also serves as the proximal attachment for the deltoid (medial collateral) ligament, which binds the tibia calcaneus and talus bones of the foot.
  3. image descriptionFibular notch (incisura fibularis) is an concavity at the distal end of the tibia, on the lateral side. It articulates with the fibula to form the inferior tibiofibular joint.
tibia fibula - anterior view - interosseous border
tibia fibula - anterior view - interosseous border - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - medial malleolus
tibia fibula - anterior view - medial malleolus - bone
anterior tibia fibula - fibular notch 5
Tibial bone markings - anterior view (continuation)
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Anterior Markings of the Fibula:

  1. image descriptionHead of fibula (caput fibulae) is a small, knob-like extension from the proximal end of the fibula that articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia.
    • The head is an attachment site for the soleus, bicep femoris (long head), fibularis (peroneus) longus, and extensor digitorum longus muscles as well as the fibular (lateral) collateral ligament.
  2. image descriptionShaft of fibula or body (corpus fibulae) is the elongated midsection bone.
  3. image descriptionInterosseous border or margin (margo interosseus fibulae) is the sharp-edged medial margin of the fibula that serves as the attachment site for the interosseous membrane, which binds the fibula to the tibia.
  4. image descriptionLateral malleolus (malleoulus lateralis) is a pyramidal-shaped, downward projection from the distal end of the fibula.
    • The medial malleolus, which extends more inferiorly than the lateral malleolus, articulates with the tibia and the talus bones of the foot to form the lateral portion of the ankle joint.
    • Several ligaments attach the lateral malleoulus to the tibia, talus, and calcaneus bones.
tibia fibula - anterior view
tibia fibula - anterior view - fibular head
tibia fibula - anterior view - fibular head - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - fibular shaft
tibia fibula - anterior view - fibular shaft - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - interosseous border 2
tibia fibula - anterior view - interosseous border 2 - bone
tibia fibula - anterior view - lateral malleolus
tibia fibula - anterior view - lateral malleolus - bone
Fibular bone markings - anterior view
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Posterior Markings of the Tibia and Fibula:

  1. The image descriptionLateral condyle of the tibia is the lateral expansion at the proximal end of the bone.
    • Flattened superior surface (deepened by lateral meniscus cartilage) articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur.
    • The head of the fibula articulates on the facet just below the condyle.
    • The anterior aspect serves as a distal attachment point for the iliotibial tract.
  2. image descriptionMedial condyle of tibia is a medial expansion at the proximal end of the bone.
    • It has a flattened superior surface (deepened by medial meniscus cartilage) articulates with lateral condyle of the femur.
    • The posterior aspect serves as the distal attachment point for semimembranosus muscle.
  3. image descriptionIntercondylar eminence of tibia – small elevations located between the medial and lateral condyles.
    • Anterior and posterior to the eminence are roughened depressions that serve as attachment points for the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and for the central tips of the medial and lateral menisci.

Quickly and efficiently learn the bones of the body with these skeletal system quizzes and worksheets.

Tibia and fibula - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - lateral condyle - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - lateral condyle - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - medial condyle - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - medial condyle - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - intercondyle eminence - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - intercondyle eminence - posterior view - bone
Tibial bone markings - posterior view
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  1. image descriptionHead of fibula is a small, knob-like extension at the superior end of the bone.
    • It articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia at the proximal tibiofibular joint.
  2. image descriptionSoleal line (popliteal line) of the tibia is an oblique ridge that extends along the proximal surface.
    • It marks the inferior attachment point for the popliteus muscle.
    • It serves as an attachment point for the soleus muscle.
  3. image descriptionMedial malleolus of tibia is the medial prominence that extends downwardly from the distal end of the bone.
    • It articulates with the talus, forming medial portion of the ankle (mortise) joint.
    • It serves as the proximal attachment for the deltoid (medial collateral) ligament of the ankle joint.
  1. image descriptionLateral malleolus of fibula is the pointed distal end of the bone. It articulates with the talus, forming the lateral portion of the ankle (mortise) joint and serves as the proximal attachment for the three components of lateral (collateral) ligament of the ankle.
  2. image descriptionFibular notch of the tibia is a depression on the lateral side of the distal tibia. It articulates with the distal end of the fibula.
Tibia and fibula - fibular head - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - fibular head - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - soleal line - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - soleal line - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - medial malleolus - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - medial malleolus - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - lateral malleolus - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - lateral malleolus - posterior view - bone
Tibia and fibula - fibular notch - posterior view
Tibia and fibula - fibular notch - posterior view - bone
Fibular bone markings - posterior view
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Test yourself:

Tibia and fibula: [image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide answers]

Test yourself image for the anterior view of the leg with structures of the tibia and fibula labeled, answers hidden.
Test yourself image for the anterior view of the leg with structures of the tibia and fibula labeled: 1. Superior tibiofibular joint, 2. Inferior tibiofibular joint, 3. Knee joint, 4. Ankle joint.
Tibia and fibula - test yourself
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Right Leg Bones:

Anterior view [image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide answers]
Posterior view [image descriptionShow/image descriptionHide answers]

anterior tibia fibula - test yourself
anterior tibia fibula - test yourself - answers
posterior tibia fibula - test yourself
posterior tibia fibula - test yourself - answers
Tibia and fibula markings - test yourself
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