Tutorials and quizzes on the anatomy and physiology of the trachea and bronchi, using interactive animations and diagrams.
There are four tissue layers of the tracheal wall. The trachea includes respiratory mucosa, submucosa, cartilaginous rings, trachealis muscle, and adventitia.
Near the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates (or splits), into the right and left primary (1) bronchi. Each bronchus runs freely for a few centimeters, then enters its respective lung. Air flows in and out of each lung through the primary bronchi.
The bronchial wall contains respiratory mucosa with mucous secreting cells, cartilage plates for support and structure, smooth muscle fibers that control the lumen and an adventitia that connects the bronchus to lung tissues.
The general anatomy of the trachea shown on anterior view and highlighting the cartilage rings on cross section view. The location relationship with the esophagus is demonstrated.