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Gluteus Maximus – Attachments, Actions & Innervation

image descriptionGluteus Maximus

Posterior view of the thigh and gluteal region with gluteus maximus highlighted. Labelled muscles: gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Posterior view of thigh and gluteal region. Showing gluteus maximus (highlighted) as well as the deeper gluteus minimus. Showing posterior muscles of the thigh: gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Posterior view of the gluteal region and thigh showing the gluteus maximus muscle.
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image descriptionAttachments of Gluteus Maximus: Origin & Insertion

Origin: (proximal attachments)
a.Surface of ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line and posterior inferior surface of sacrum and coccyx.

Insertion: (distal attachments)
a.Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract (or band).

Posterior view of the thigh and gluteal region showing the muscles: gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus (highlighted), gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Posterior view of the gluteal region and thigh showing the gluteus maximus muscle.
Posterior view of thigh and gluteal region showing the origin and insertion of the gluteus maximus muscle.
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Actions of Gluteus Maximus on the thigh (femur):

a. image descriptionExtends thigh at the hip.

First image in animation of a figure with thigh in flexed position ready to begin extension.
Second image in animation, of a figure with thigh in flexed position but slightly more extended than image 1.
Third image in animation, of figure with thigh in flexed position but slightly more extended than image 2.
Fourth image in animation, of figure with thigh in slightly flexed position but almost extended.
Fifth image in animation, of figure with thigh in anatomical position.

b. image descriptionLaterally Rotates thigh at the hip.

First image in animation, of figure with thigh in anatomical position.
Second image in animation, of figure with thigh in lateral rotation.
Third image in animation, of figure with thigh in lateral rotation.
Fourth image in animation, of figure with thigh in lateral rotation.
Fifth image in animation, of figure with thigh in lateral rotation.

c. image descriptionAbducts thigh at the hip.
(The inferior fibers also stabilize the extended knee by tightening iliotibial tract).

First image in animation of image of figure with thigh in anatomical position.
Second image in animation of image of figure with thigh in slight abduction.
Third image in animation of image of figure with thigh in slight abduction.
Fourth image in animation of image of figure with thigh in abduction.
Fifth image in animation of image of figure with thigh abducted

Nerve to Muscle and its Spinal Segment:

a. Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2).

An Overview of the Posterior Muscles of the Thigh:

Test yourself image 1, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region showing all superficial muscles with no labels.
Test yourself image 2, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, all superficial muscles and structures labelled- gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 3, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, lateral rotators of the thigh visible. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 4, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, lateral rotators of the thigh removed so can see the hip bone. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 5, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, tensor fasciae latae removed so can see all of gluteus medius. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 6, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, gluteus medius removed so can see gluteus minimus. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus minimus, gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 7, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, gluteus minimus removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, gracilis, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 8, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, gracilis removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 9, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, semimembranosus removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), semitendinosus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 10, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, semitendinosus removed so can see adductor magnus. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), adductor magnus, biceps femoris: short head, biceps femoris: long head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 11, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, biceps femoris: long head removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), adductor magnus, biceps femoris: short head, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 12, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, biceps femoris: short head removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), adductor magnus, gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 13, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, adductor magnus removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band), gastrocnemius.
Test yourself image 14, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region, gastrocnemius removed. Muscles and structures labelled- gluteus maximus, iliotibial tract (band).
Test yourself image 15, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region showing gluteus maximus and its origin and insertion labelled.
Test yourself image 16, posterior view of thigh and gluteal region showing sacrum, hip bone, femur, tibia and fibula with no labels.
Test yourself while observing the Gluteus Maximus muscle
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